20 Apr 2023

Python Application Deployment: Methods and Platforms

Python is a popular programming language that is used extensively in web development, scientific computing, and data analysis. However, after developing a Python application, the next crucial step is to deploy it for users to access. This can be a daunting task, especially for new developers. In this article, we will discuss various methods and platforms for deploying Python applications.

Methods of Python Application Deployment

1. Virtual Environment

A virtual environment is a way of isolating Python projects and their dependencies. It enables you to create a separate environment with its own Python interpreter and packages that are independent of other Python projects. This method is useful in ensuring that your application runs on a specific version of Python, and its dependencies don't conflict with those of other applications.

To create a virtual environment, you can use the built-in module venv in Python 3. Create a new directory and navigate to it, then run the following command:

python3 -m venv env

This will create a new virtual environment named env. To activate the environment, run:

source env/bin/activate

You can now install dependencies and run your Python application in this environment.

2. Containerization

Containerization is a method of deploying applications in an isolated environment, known as a container. It allows you to package your application with all its dependencies and runtime libraries, making it easy to deploy on any platform. Containerization tools such as Docker make it easy to create and manage containers.

To deploy your Python application using Docker, you need to create a Dockerfile that defines the container environment. Here is an example Dockerfile for a Python application:

FROM python:3.8-slim-buster


COPY requirements.txt ./
RUN pip install --no-cache-dir -r requirements.txt

COPY . .

CMD [ "python", "./app.py" ]

This Dockerfile specifies a base image with Python 3.8 installed and creates a working directory /app. It copies the requirements.txt file, installs the dependencies, and copies the application code. Finally, it sets the command to run the app.py file.

To build and run the container, navigate to the directory with the Dockerfile and run:

docker build -t my-python-app .
docker run --rm my-python-app

3. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)

PaaS is a cloud computing model that allows you to deploy and manage applications without worrying about the underlying infrastructure. It provides a complete platform for application development, deployment, and scaling. PaaS providers such as Heroku and Google App Engine support Python applications.

To deploy your Python application on Heroku, you need to create a Procfile that specifies the command to start your application. Here is an example Procfile:

web: gunicorn app:app

This Procfile specifies that the gunicorn command should be used to start the application in the app.py file.

To deploy the application, create a Heroku account and install the Heroku CLI. Navigate to the application directory and run the following commands:

heroku create
git push heroku master

This will create a new Heroku application and deploy your Python application to it.

4. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)

IaaS is a cloud computing model that provides virtualized computing resources, such as virtual machines, storage, and networking. It allows you to deploy and manage applications on your own virtual infrastructure. IaaS providers such as Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Microsoft Azure support Python applications.

To deploy your Python application on AWS, you can use Elastic Beanstalk, a platform that provides a platform for deploying and scaling web applications. Elastic Beanstalk supports multiple languages, including Python. Here are the steps to deploy a Python application using Elastic Beanstalk:

  1. Create an Elastic Beanstalk environment: Navigate to the AWS Management Console, select Elastic Beanstalk, and click "Create environment." Choose the "Web server environment" platform and select the appropriate instance type, region, and other settings.
  2. Configure the environment: In the configuration settings, specify the Python version, application port, and other settings.
  3. Deploy the application: Upload your application code or connect to your source repository. Elastic Beanstalk will automatically deploy your application and start it in the environment.
  4. Scale the environment: Elastic Beanstalk provides scaling options to adjust the number of instances running your application based on demand.


Deploying a Python application can be a complex task, but there are various methods and platforms available to simplify the process. Virtual environments provide a way to isolate your application and its dependencies, while containerization and PaaS platforms offer easy deployment and scaling options. IaaS platforms provide more control over the infrastructure, but require more configuration. Choose the method and platform that best fits your application's needs and deployment requirements.